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Shield Volcano
Source:Leiqiong Global Geopark of China Time:2014-03-31 18:54:01

Shield volcano is formed in the process of overflowing of low-viscosity magma from the central of lateral crater, then going down along the slopes to form a wide cone shape landscape. It is also called lava cone. The low-viscosity magma is mainly consisted of basalt, and usually develops into shield volcano. There are two main types of shield volcano:

(1)Hawaiian type: It is featured by large scale in quantity and diverse causes of formation. Some massive shield volcanoes has collapsed caldera on the top, lava cone splashed down, cinder cone and small-size rock shield. The biggest shield volcano is Mauna Loa active volcano, rising from the bottom of Pacific Ocean by 9 kilometers, and reaching the summit of 4169 kilometers, with a total volume of about 40000 cubic kilometers.

(2)Iceland type: It is featured by small scale in quantity and single cause of formation. The Iceland type volcano is usually less than 15 kilometers wide, with a less than 1-kilometer tip diameter on the top. The volcanoes of this type have a perfectly symmetrical shape, formed in the process of central eruption on the top. In the area of this type, a large quantity of pahoehoe lava is produced, and peaking ring is formed by splashed down lava cone around the volcano. The typical Iceland type volcano is Skjald breiduer Volcano in Iceland.